Being a green boater

If you are a boater, kayaker, or wakeboarder, chances are you love the water and being out in nature.

While recreational boating is a great way to experience nature, it can have numerous impacts on the environment - aquatic invasive species can be spread, cleaning agents can pollute, and where you anchor can damage habitat. Learn how you can take care of these places that fill your cup (literally and figuratively) while out on the water.

How does being a green boater benefit salmon?

Taking steps to minimize your impact while out on the water keeps habitats healthy and the water clean thereby reducing the collective pressures that salmon face.

Read on to learn about steps that you can take to prevent negative consequences to the environment and minimize your impact while boating.

Use Environmentally-friendly Cleaning Products and Wash on Land When Possible

Grey water, the water that goes down the drain while washing up, can have impacts to our nearshore environment, especially when it is discarded straight into the water - such as when you are boating or camping. If you are able to, the best option is to wash on land at a marina where dishwashing and showering facilities exist so that water with soaps and detergents will get processed by municipal treatment plants, or at minimum, pass through a septic system.

If you must wash where you will discard the water directly to the environment, here are some considerations:

Similar rules apply for washing and maintaining your boat. Cleaning and maintaining your boat on land is the best option to avoid polluting the ocean and harming marine life. Cleaning within marinas is not a good option. They are typically set up in bays where there is less water exchange, and that means the pollution and residues that enter the water will stay there longer and concentrate in that area.

When cleaning your boat:

How can you be sure a product is safe?

Greenwashing, weak or false environmental claims, can be hard to decipher when faced with a myriad of products on the store shelves. See our post about decoding eco-labels on cleaning products, or try creating your own safe cleaning products with food safe products you probably have in your pantry that are free of harmful chemicals.

Be responsible with your waste

Boating can generate a lot of waste, and it is every boater's responsibility to dispose of it appropriately. Not only is trash in the water unsightly, it can cause death and destruction. Ghost gear (nets and fishing line) entangle fish, birds, and marine mammals; broken down plastics become part of the food chain; and chemicals impact the health of habitats and animals.

It is not always easy to get rid of things while out on the water, so here are some helpful tips:

Paint safely and with non-toxic paints (or avoid painting altogether)

Many boats are coated with anti-fouling paint. The reasons these paints keep your hull from becoming covered with critters is because they contain highly toxic ingredients such as copper pesticides that prevent life from thriving. As you can imagine, residuals from these paints in the environment are terrible for aquatic life.

It is best to avoid painting, instead you can keep your hull clean by:

If you must paint your boat, minimize your impact by:

Pump out properly

This goes without saying, but sewage needs to be managed with the environment in mind. Sewage waste contains concentrated nutrients, chemicals, and pathogens - all of which have serious environmental, human health, and economic consequences.

Excess nutrients can cause algal blooms that rob the water of oxygen. Chemicals including pharmaceuticals, which are found in sewage, can affect behaviour and reproduction of aquatic species. And, bacteria and viruses from human waste can affect sensitive habitats and species, make beaches unsafe for recreation, and cause shellfish closures.

Not only that, it’s against the law to release sewage within 3 nautical miles of shore and sewage can never be discharged in rivers or lakes. Violations can be up to $1 million fine and/or up to 18 months of imprisonment.

Here is how you can avoid releasing sewage to the water:

  • Pump out at official sewage pump outs, become familiar with the locations around the Strait of Georgia and beyond, try using the interactive map by ahoyBC linked on the left.
  • If you don’t have a toilet onboard, use a temporary port-a-potty and haul it out at your next pump out station or washroom.
  • You could also install a marine sanitation device on board.

Fuel up Carefully

Fuel, oils, and all petroleum products used to power and maintain your boat are highly toxic to salmon, other fish, seabirds, shellfish, and, really, everything in the sea.

You can prevent accidental spills by taking care with the following tips:

Watch where you anchor

Avoid anchoring in sensitive habitats like eelgrass meadows, which are important nursery habitat for juvenile salmon and a myriad of sea life. Eelgrass is easily damaged by anchoring - it becomes fragmented and uprooted, reducing the amount of healthy available habitat that these critters and fish need. Anchor deeper than 7m and check out our Tool Kit article on the subject for more tips.

Avoid spreading invasive species

Whether you’re boating or paddling, we need to be careful that invasive species do not hitch a ride with us. Invasive plants and animals can change a landscape if given the opportunity. European green crabs, for example, damages habitats and competes with and preys upon native fauna.

Invasive species can easily be transferred from one body of water to another, so it is imperative to clean your boat and all your gear thoroughly and let it dry fully before using it elsewhere. The Invasive Species Council of British Columbia (ISCBC) provides great tips for preventing the spread of invasive aquatic species with their Clean Drain Dry educational campaign that we summarize below.

Recommendations for preventing the spread of invasive species:

If you invasive species, report them:

Plan your boat’s retirement

All good things come to an end, and for boats planning that end is essential to protecting the environment. Abandoned boats can become navigational hazards, leak contaminants, and move with the currents, scouring sensitive habitats and washing ashore as they go. Abandoned boats often sink, along with all the extra items on board creating more marine debris that is difficult to remove, and any fuel is that is left onboard can leak into the ocean. Responsibly 'retiring' your boat is also required by law, the Wrecked, Abandoned or Hazardous Vessels Act was implemented in 2019 to help regulate the disposal of vessels and outlines the responsibilities of vessel owners.

If your boat is no longer seaworthy, can no longer be safely operated, or the repairs to keep your boat operation exceed the monetary or emotional value of the boat, Boating BC Association suggests its time to retire your boat.

Here are the steps for retiring your boat:

This can be most simply achieved by enlisting a reputable full service boat disposal group to manage all steps to responsibly dispose of your retired boat. The linked document on the left by Boating BC Association is a directory of boat disposal services for the Vancouver Island region. It includes both full service disposal contracts and contacts for each of the steps mentioned above.

If you are simply upgrading your boat but there’s still life left in your old one, you can sell it or donate it to an organization that may have use for a boat.  Find local non-profits close to home with this map of stewardship groups on Vancouver Island.

If you find an abandoned boat, report it!

Report derelict, abandoned boats to the Dead Boats Disposal Society, who specialize in removing and salvaging vessels.

Additional resources

  • Georgia Strait Alliance has written a helpful guide that is freely available. Many of the tips we share come from this guide.

Photo credits: Eiko Jones, Kyla Sheehan, Maria Catanzaro, Debby Hudson on Unsplash, Coastal Photography Studio

Harvesting Rainwater

Water is a precious resource essential to all life.

For millennia, people experiencing regular or periodic lack of water developed ingenious methods to harvest and store every drop of rainwater they could. With changing climate patterns, depletion of water tables, and water restrictions due to unprecedented periods of heat and drought, many BC residents now realize that an abundant water supply is not assured and are thinking about harvesting and conserving this precious resource.

What is Rainwater Harvesting?

Rainwater harvesting is another way to manage stormwater runoff with the added benefit of being able to put that excess water to use at a later date when water is in shorter supply. Harvesting rainwater typically involves collecting and storing rainwater that would otherwise run off a roof or other impermeable surface. During storms, this diversion of runoff can help prevent flooding and erosion. On the flip side, during dry periods, using the stored water can take pressure off our natural freshwater resources – lakes, streams, and groundwater that may be depleted.

How does rainwater harvesting benefit salmon?

It diverts stormwater runoff from impermeable surfaces which could otherwise contribute to habitat damage from flooding and erosion where spawning salmon lay their eggs and young salmon rear.

Using harvested rainwater takes off pressure on natural water resources during periods of drought, such as late summer and early fall when salmon need water in streams to migrate.

Stormwater runoff often contains pollutants that negatively impact the ecosystem, diverting this water can prevent pollution from entering sensitive environments.

Check out the runoff management article for more information on common contaminants, and other nature-based solutions to capture runoff: Nature-based Solutions to Manage Stormwater Runoff.

Here are a few more benefits of harvesting rainwater:
  • Reduce pollutants flowing into lakes, streams, oceans, and groundwater– redirecting and reducing stormwater by harvesting rainwater can minimize the pollutant loads that enter sensitive ecosystems. .
  • Depending on the setup, a system can contribute to groundwater recharge – using a system that filters and redirects water into the ground can recharge aquifers.
There are two main methods of rainwater harvesting

Rooftop rainwater harvesting involves collecting rainwater from the roofs of buildings and houses using gutters, pipes, filters, and tanks or rain barrels. The collected water can be used for various household needs, such as washing, gardening, and even cooking or drinking (depending on the type of roof and ability to purify). Rooftop rainwater harvesting can also recharge groundwater aquifers by diverting the excess water to wells, boreholes, or recharge pits. Here is a schematic of a typical rooftop rainwater harvesting:

Surface runoff harvesting involves collecting rainwater that flows over the ground using swales, ponds, rain gardens, reservoirs, in-ground tanks, and percolation through penetrable surfaces, like sand, gravel, and permeable pavements. Collected water can be used for irrigation and watering livestock. It can also recharge groundwater aquifers when water is directed to infiltration basins, trenches, or percolation tanks instead.

There is no one correct way to harvest rainwater. It depends upon the system's scale, budget, and purpose; however, the costs can vary widely depending on the solutions employed.

Rain Harvesting for Homeowners

Rooftop rain harvesting is the most common and least costly approach for household purposes. Rain barrels, the cost of which are subsidized by many local governments, receive rainwater from a downspout attached to the roof's gutter and provide easily accessible water for the garden and other outdoor purposes, typically having a faucet or hose attachment at the bottom. Multiple barrels can be interconnected via pipes to store a significant amount of water.

For small-scale harvesting for use in the garden, you can even DIY in an afternoon with items from a hardware store, see this example of step-by-step instructions from

For households that do not have a municipal water source or those with significant water needs for garden plots and livestock, a more elaborate system may be required.  There are large storage tanks that can hold thousands of gallons of water, which can be placed above or below ground. The tank can be connected to a pump and a filtration system to deliver clean water to different parts of the house or garden.

For large-scale harvesting and when you plan to use the water in your home, including for drinking water, it is best to seek the help of professionals.

Wondering how much you can harvest?

In this post about rainwater harvest ideas on, there is a rainwater harvest calculator. Simply put in the catchment area (the width and length (ft) of your roof you intend to capture water from) and the amount of rainfall (in) expected and it will tell you how many gallons you would receive.

If you wish to calculate it yourself (or prefer metric measurements), for every square metre of roof catchment area and millimetre of rainfall, one Litre of water will be produced. Based on that you can use the following formula will calculate your expected total:

Catchment area (m2) x annual local average rainfall (mm) = ____L

So, for a 10m x 10m (or 100m2) roof in Nanoose, which receives an average annual rainfall of 1086mm, there would be 108,600L (or 108.6m3) of rainwater. Note that the maximum efficiency of a typical harvest system would be between 75-80% of that total due to evaporation, periods of overflow etc.

Learn about rainwater harvesting in BC

In addition to, or instead of rooftop harvesting systems, simple surface runoff harvesting techniques, such as rain gardens and swales, are increasingly popular techniques to capture and filter rainwater.  These do not usually supply a readily available source of water for household use but do contribute to groundwater replenishment and natural purification, making water available to plants within the immediate vicinity while also serving to remove pollutants that could otherwise be swept into waterways.

Rainwater harvesting is an ancient and sustainable practice that can help conserve water, save money, improve plant health, and provide an emergency water supply, all of which improves the climate resiliency of our families and communities. By collecting and storing rainwater for later use, we can use a precious natural resource that would otherwise go to waste.

Additional Resources

For further information on rainwater harvesting, including ways to establish your own system, try these sites and resources:

Water Harvesting Basics (

Water Harvesting - Definition, Importance, Methods, Limitations (

23 Awesome DIY Rainwater Harvesting Systems You Can Build at Home (

Rainwater Harvesting: A Beginner’s Guide (

Beginner’s Guide to Rainwater Harvesting (

Smith, J. (2010). Rainwater harvesting: Benefits and challenges. Journal of Environmental Science, 12(3), 45-56.

Photo credits: Ed Leszczynskl on Unsplash, Eiko Jones, Photo licensed under CC BY-NC, Photo licensed under CC BY-NC-ND Paul de Greeff, Nicole Christiansen, Illustration by Holly Sullivan

Places to Visit and Learn

No matter your age, learning about the environment and our local ecosystems is fun!

Whether you’re getting outside to a local park or trail, learning about the marine environment such as intertidal critters through touch tanks at an aquarium, or learning about Indigenous cultures on the land that you live on through virtual or in person field trips, there is so much to explore.

To get you on your way, we have compiled a map and a list below of great places and events to visit for you to get to know the coast of Vancouver Island!

Which ones have you visited? Are there any that we missed? Let us know by emailing

Click the map to explore!

How does visiting places benefit salmon?

Getting out to learn and appreciate nature, salmon, and First Nations culture encourages us to take care of our land and water and be better stewards for Pacific salmon.

Here are some places to check out:

Museums, aquariums, nature centres, and more


Rainy day with nothing to do? Check out some of our Island's great museums!


Vancouver has a renowned aquarium, but did you know about these gems on Vancouver Island? Dive into the fascinating world of marine life on our coasts at

  • the Shaw Centre for the Salish Sea  in Sidney where you may see a giant Pacific octopus play with toys and hear fascinating lectures!
  • the Ucluelet Aquarium, Canada’s first collect-and-release aquarium! Located on the traditional territory of the Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ (Ucluelet) First Nation, this facility features many native fish and invertebrate species who are collected from the local waters, then returned after a short residency. The aquarium is also a part of many initiatives to map and protect nearshore habitats like eelgrass, and clean up microplastics and marine debris from their shorelines, and
  • the Discovery Passage Aquarium in Campbell River, which offers a 'hands on' experience and offers summer camps and school programs.

Nature Centres

Many national, provincial, and regional parks on Vancouver Island have nature houses or nature centres to learn about the features, ecology, and culture of the area. A few to check out include

  • the Cowichan Estuary Nature Centre, an interpretive centre overlooking the Cowichan Estuary. Over 80% of the area’s wildlife use the estuary. You can learn about many of them and even observe some close up in their aquariums, touch tank, and microscopes! The nature centre offers immersive learning programs for students from kindergarten to grade 12 on topics like estuary ecosystems, microplastics pollution, and ecological restoration.

And more...

Explore Through a First Nations’ Lens

There is no better way to learn about our natural places than from the First Nations who have stewarded these lands since time immemorial. On Vancouver Island, we live on the traditional and unceded territories of the Coast Salish, Nuu-chah-nulth and Kwakwakaw’akw Peoples. Check out Indigenous Tourism BC’s list of other places to visit on the mainland too to learn about the Indigenous cultures of BC.

Become familiar with the traditional place names where you live, the Nations on whose territory you live and work, and the history of colonization on these lands. With the Native Land interactive map, you can explore different areas to view the traditional territories, treaties, as well as the languages spoken by the Indigenous group.

Here are some amazing places to visit on Vancouver Island:

Visit Parks!

The best way to learn is by getting out there! Check out BC’s beautiful national and provincial parks, as well as regional parks and nature reserves.

The Province of BC has even created this interactive map where you can visualize all the parks in BC, as well as current closures or restrictions. Many parks have information centres where you can pick up brochures and maps, and learn about the history of a place and the nature it protects.

It is important to recognize the connections that Indigenous peoples and communities have with these special places having managed them for millennia. Read about Parks Canada’s commitment to honour the contributions and history of Indigenous people, co-management projects, and resources here.

Explore the parks in your own backyard

Here are a few suggestions for getting out there and enjoying your local areas along with links to regional directories to help you find outdoor adventures:




Port Alberni


Campbell River


Special events can be an excellent way to learn about local initiatives and get some hands-on learning experiences. There are many events around the Island that celebrate our coast, native species, and, of course, Pacific salmon. Keep an eye on your local newspaper to find other events near you and check out our events page to find ones Resilient Coasts for Salmon will be at!




  • Learn about salmon and hatchery production right at the source! Each fall, the Nanaimo River Hatchery hosts their Spawning Day event, where you can watch an egg take, make a fish print masterpiece, and even release a fry in the river! Check out their Facebook page to learn more!

Want to be even more involved?

Virtual exploring options

Photo credits: Susanne Jutzeler, suju-foto on Pexels, Kyla Sheehan, Nicole Christiansen

Ways to Enact Actions for the Climate

How can we motivate ourselves to create new habits that make us feel good AND help the planet?

If it feels difficult to act on things that feel abstract, too large to solve, or don’t have immediate benefits, you are not alone – it is part of the human condition.

Research on human behaviour suggests that people tend to forgo long-term net benefit (for the individual or collective good) for immediate gratification. This is known as hyperbolic discounting. Examples include procrastinating while writing a report or giving into dessert while on a diet. Another example, which will be the focus of this post, is not taking the action needed to reduce our carbon footprint despite the negative impacts of climate change looming.

We are already experiencing the effects of climate change – floods, droughts, heatwaves and wildfires are impacting us and communities across the globe. We know from modelled projections that what we are currently experiencing is the tip of the (melting) iceberg if we do not start taking action. So, how can we shift our decision-making process to take immediate meaningful action?

Behavioural science research helps us understand how we make decisions and what influences our behaviour. For example, there are small adjustments or ‘nudges’ that can affect our decisions when we least expect it. Through 'choice architecture' or, in other words, organizing the context in which people make decisions, options can be presented in specific ways that can nudge our behaviour (for better or worse when marketers are trying to sell us things!). Research has shown that you can encourage healthier eating through the strategic placement of food items. The closer a healthy item was displayed at a cafeteria (i.e., vegetables right in front of you at the beginning of the line, with junk food in the back) the more likely people were to take it. If nudges are applied in a way that influences people to choose the more environmentally friendly option, it could be a great way to make progress towards reducing emissions. For example, a restaurant could structure its menu to encourage customers to eat more plant-based meals. Check out the book Nudge that dives into this strategy as a way to influence certain behaviours.

How we think about climate change and the environment can influence how we act. See the sections below for how we can apply lessons learned from this discipline to help us enact climate change action.

How does taking action against climate change benefit salmon?

Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the future of Pacific salmon. Taking action to minimize one’s carbon footprint is an important step to reducing the pressures future generations of Pacific salmon will face.

Below are some behaviour-change strategies to try out:

Focus on everyday small manageable actions

In a world of more than seven billion people, each of us is a drop in the bucket. But with enough drops, we can fill any bucket.”

-David Suzuki

Individual actions CAN make a difference. A great place to start is with things like transportation, diet, and power usage at home.

There are many ways we can do our part while we are stewards on this earth (with long-standing benefits for future generations!) – take a look at our Tool Kit for some ideas to get started.

For example, taking steps like reducing your electricity use, reducing your waste, and eliminating toxins and contaminants from your cleaning products can reduce the cumulative stress on the environment and the species that depend on it (hint: including us!).

By improving the products we use in our households we can reduce the amount of detrimental toxins that enter our waterways. And if we take the steps to be a greener boater, we can reduce the impacts we have on vital ecosystems (that are also carbon sinks) such as eelgrass meadows – helping to continue to function as habitat as well as providing ecosystem services to coastal communities.

Shift Habitual Behaviours – Re-set your habits

Most of us are now in the habit of bringing reusable shopping bags every time we go to the grocery store, while just a few years ago this action was on few people's radar. We can do the same thing with produce bags, a water bottle, or your coffee mug. You can also get into the habit of unplugging your devices after use or using a clothesline to dry your clothes instead of using the dryer. These are simple steps that once you do it a few times, it will become second nature!

Try habit stacking - Building a habit can be tough, but if we use other habits as a base, we can stack new ones on top to build a new routine more easily. For example, you might want to start bringing a reusable coffee mug to reduce waste created by single use cups. If you already have a habit of packing your lunch for work the night before, you can put your reusable mug in the fridge with your lunch so it is all ready to go in the morning. Habit stacking such as this can help us make small changes that make a big difference.

Make Yourself Accountable – Strategies to make your intentions stick

Commit to a goal by sharing it with a friend – What is something that feels important to you? For example, let’s say you want to reduce your dependence on your vehicle and reduce your emissions. Create a goal (you can start small) and tell someone that is close to you. Here’s a helpful form to get you started! For instance, you may choose to ride your bike to work 3 out of 5 days a week instead of driving. By telling a friend, it helps us feel more accountable and more likely to stick to it.

Create a Buddy System – You can strengthen your goal setting and follow-through by creating a buddy system. We hold ourselves and each other more accountable when we do it together. Even if you live in different towns, you can send one another a photo of your commute to work each day. This will also motivate your partner to keep at their goal!

Encourage yourself with Positive Reinforcement

Tracking your progress - Posting your progress somewhere you will see it on a regular basis, such as on your fridge, can help encourage you to continue with your goals.

For example, you can mark on your calendar when you bike to work each week and then plot it in a simple graph. You will be able to visualize how you are reducing your reliance on your car over time.

You can even take it a step further and determine the cost of your daily commute in gas and wear and tear – often calculated around $0.68 per km – and work out how much you are saving each month – treat yourself at your local ice cream shop (or whatever motivates you) with the money you saved!

Another good example is receiving feedback on your energy usage – because it can positively impact your behaviour. Home energy reports and real-time feedback are helping us visualize our energy usage at home in a way that can encourage positive action. Some reports even show typical usage during the day, and when it would be more cost-efficient to use things like washing machines. These reports often show you a graph of your energy usage for the previous months and across seasons. By tracking our usage, it can help us identify trends in our use and where we may be able to improve it – awareness of our progress can be very motivating.

Neighbourly Competition - Social norm comparisons help encourage more positive behaviours as well – you can think of it as friendly competition with your neighbours. Research has shown that home energy reports that incorporate behavioural science strategy in their design can help you save money and be gentler on the planet, this includes adding energy savings tips and charts displaying your neighbour’s energy usage in comparison to yours into the report design.

Think about our ‘future selves’

One way to combat hyperbolic discounting, and our tendencies to choose convenient options over the more responsible ones is to think about long-term gain. Research suggests that the more we think about our future selves, the more likely we will make more considered decisions (Sheffer 2016).

Invest in the future -This could look like planting trees on your property now so you can enjoy shade and cooler temperatures in 10 years, whilst also helping to sequester carbon. Or purchasing more expensive but efficient appliances or installing solar energy for your home, knowing that the investment will be seen in 5-10 years, with a reduction in environmentally intensive resources and lower energy bills.

Think of what you value - Another angle to motivate yourself is to consider the activities you can enjoy today that will be lost in the future if high carbon emissions continue. Would you like to take your grandchildren fishing or skiing on your local hill? Do you love eating wild salmon or is seeing glaciers in the national parks on your bucket list? Use those thoughts to inspire yourself into action.

Setting Defaults

Set yourself up with sustainable default options - While they may take a bit of effort initially, default options are helpful because they reduce future effort and help ensure you make environmentally friendly decisions.

For example, create a bookmark on your computer that can provide easy access for ordering your groceries from a local farm each week or set up automatic order renewals. This small step of setting up an account, will help you streamline your grocery shopping process and stock your pantry and fridge at home with foods that have a lower carbon footprint. You can feel good knowing your food is coming from family-owned farms nearby, instead of being shipped from countries far away. Farms also have delivery services with their Community Supported Agricultural (CSA) boxes, set yourself up with a subscription for local seasonal produce delivered to your door!

Another example would be to install a programmable thermostat – once it’s set up, it will be easy to enact energy saving strategies. You can program your thermostat to a lower temperature while you are sleeping or at work. Having a schedule for your thermostat will minimize your need to tinker with it and, by default, reduce your energy usage.

Consider the Financial Benefits

Money is a great motivator - there are a number of actions that are better for the environment that are actually more cost effective than the traditional option. Here is a list, and I bet you can think of more!

  • Turning off the lights and devices when they are not in use.
  • Lowering your thermostat when you are sleeping and out of the house.
  • Eating less meat.
  • Being careful to reduce food waste.
  • Buying less, shopping at second hand stores, and repairing what you have.
  • Walking and riding your bike rather than relying on your car – cheaper and better for your health.
  • Washing your clothes on cold and hanging them to dry rather than the using the dryer.
Vote with the environment in mind!

While the focus of this post is on individual action, we do recognize that governments and industries have a crucial role in establishing policies to curb emissions. Long-term policies with teeth are needed to withstand an election cycle. Unfortunately, in many cases, political will suffers the same behavioural pit falls – favouring short-term gain (immediate boosts to the economy) at the expense of long-term goals (investing in expensive upfront costs for adaptation and mitigation) even though early action would come at less net cost. Therefore, as an individual, an important step is voting for candidates that support climate action. And it’s not just at the ballot box, vote with your dollar and support companies taking steps to reduce emissions.

By creating individual change we can empower others to do the same! You can set the stage with climate-positive behaviours that can rub off on others in your community.

Additional Resources

Center for Advanced Hindsight

Check out David Suzuki’s Top 10 ways to stop climate change.

Sheffer, C. E., Mackillop, J., Fernandez, A., Christensen, D., Bickel, W. K., Johnson, M. W., … &    Mathew, M. (2016). Initial examination of priming tasks to decrease delay discounting. Behavioural Processes, 128, 144-152.

Williamson, K., Satre-Meloy, A., Velasco, K., & Green, K., 2018. Climate Change Needs Behavior Change: Making the Case For Behavioral Solutions to Reduce Global Warming. Arlington, VA: Rare.

Photo credit: Li An Lin Unsplash; Markus Spiske, Unsplash; Maria Catanzaro, Nicole Christiansen, Markus Spiske, Unsplash; Anete Lusina, Pexels; Nextbike, Unsplash.

Green Gardening - Supporting Biodiversity and Conserving Water

More tips to make your green thumb a little greener!

There are so many conscious choices you can make in your garden to have a positive impact that we've made multiple Tool Kit posts on the subject of eco-friendly gardening! In this one we focus on how you can support pollinators, water efficiently, and embrace our local conditions for less net impact.

How does conserving water and supporting biodiversity benefit salmon?

Conserving water in the garden keeps more water in streams, which is particularly important during late summer and fall when Pacific salmon are returning to their natal rivers to spawn.

Land and water are connected. Diverse native plants and critters are what Pacific salmon have evolved with and rely on. Supporting biodiversity in your garden keeps that connection.

Here are some suggestions:

Opt for Native Plants

Choosing plants that are native to your region can help reduce your need for fertilizers, pesticides, and watering. Native plants are adapted for our climate and soil, and therefore require less input of nutrients and are suited for our wet winters and dry summers. They also support our local biodiversity by ensuring critters, including native birds and insect pollinators, have access to the plants they have evolved with and depend on.

When planning where and what native species to plant in your garden, consider the light and water conditions of the spot and select accordingly for the best chance for successful establishment and long-term low maintenance. Experts at nurseries can help you identify the perfect plant and how to care for it as it becomes established. Our Planting a Native Garden Tool Kit has a map of nurseries that specialize in native species.

Water Efficiently

When it comes to watering your garden, it is important to be mindful of water usage, while maintaining plant health. Here are some ways to improve the efficiency of your watering routine.

  • Water the roots, not the leaves. Drip irrigation systems can help you deliver the water exactly where you want it to go, and in the right amount in comparison to a traditional sprinkler system. Not only does this provide hydration efficiently, but by not soaking the entire plant, it causes less disease. A slow release of water also allows the soil to soak up water better, preventing runoff from the soil surface.

Check you this video from the Capital Regional District on how to install different irrigation systems:

Go for Summer Gold!

If you have a lawn, let it go gold in the summer! In our climate of warm dry summers, maintaining a green summer lawn requires a huge input of water, just when we should be adhering to watering restrictions. With climate change and increasing demands on our water supply - it is ever more important to conserve. Letting your lawn dry out is a great way to cut back on water usage.

Did you know that grass naturally hibernates during the summer? There is no harm in letting your lawn turn golden for the summer months, you are working with the natural cycle of your lawn, and you will see it bounce back with the fall rains! So, let your grass have a rest over the summer and save water and you'll also save your self mowing in the summer heat! Check out this info sheet from the Capital Regional District for more Water Wise Lawn Care.

Support Pollinators with a Meadow Lawn

You may have heard of the slogan 'No-Mow May', but this pledge to stop mowing your lawn for the summer is an oversimplified solution and may cause more harm than good, as this article from Rewilding explains. In BC, non-native plant species are abundant, and the chances are that if you leave your lawn to grow over a few weeks, all that will come up will be non-native weedy species like dandelions and white clover. While you may notice that some bees do visit these flowers, they are not the best food sources for native pollinators. Did you know that dandelion pollen is actually a protein deficient food source, and can lead colonies of bees to feed on their own eggs to supplement their diets? Native flower pollen, on the other hand, offers balanced nutrients to sustain native pollinators, since the plants and pollinators would have evolved in the local ecosystem together. While the No-Mow May movement encourages the notion that messy lawns, rather than curated golf greens, are beautiful, we need to take this a step further to ensure that we are supporting our native pollinators. Rather, consider converting your lawn to a meadow!

Instead of a stark golf course lawn, why not use the space to support pollinators, fix nitrogen, manage runoff, and maintain diversity? West Coast Seeds offers different seed blends that you can try as a lawn alternative, including clovers, tall fescue, and even beautiful wildflowers. Watch your lawn space come alive with colour, texture and native bees and butterflies! Check out our Native Plants Tool Kit to learn more, and visit Satinflower Nurseries for more info about meadow-making.

Bonus Fun Tip!

Solar lights

Your green garden can be bright and event-worthy, without adding to your energy bill! There are lots of options for solar powered lights to brighten up your patio space in the evening.

Photo credits: Mina-Marie Michell on Pexels; .Daniel Johnson on Pexels; Devolk on Pixabay.

Green Gardening - Managing Pests and Soil

If we treat our gardens as a natural, functioning system, we can avoid the use of harmful chemicals and still have healthy, thriving plants. Here are some tips on how to make your green thumb greener!

In this Tool Kit we offer suggestions that will help you avoid unnecessary pesticides and fertilizers, along with natural ways to maintain healthy soils.

How does managing garden pests and soil naturally benefit salmon?

Pesticides are often made up of toxic chemicals that can make their way to aquatic environments and directly affect the health of salmon. Avoiding them makes streams and salmon healthier.

Pesticides can indiscriminately kill insects that are not harmful garden pests but are an important part of the ecosystem and a vital food source for salmon.

Maintaining healthy soils without the use of excessive fertilizers helps keep waterways clean and healthy for salmon. Fertilizers contribute to eutrophication and algal blooms which can rob the water of oxygen and lead to fish kills.

Natural Pest Management

Insects are part of a healthy ecosystem – but in our gardens, we would prefer that some insects don’t snack on the broccoli and kale that we have grown for our dinner!

Integrated Pest Management is a holistic approach to pest management that focuses on pest prevention and treating the garden as a system. Remember that insects are a part of this system, so some level of pest damage should be acceptable. Crop rotation is an important principle of pest management, as it helps prevent pests from building up in the soil. Monitoring for pests is crucial. Notice where and how the pest is attacking the plant early on, then correctly identify the culprit. This will help pair the most appropriate treatment for the pest. For example, if you have a group of aphids on the leaves of a plant, a simple spray of the hose can wash them away. Biological controls are a good option before turning to chemical treatments. Biological control can involve the introduction of other insects or even animals! Chickens, for instance, can make quick work of a soil bed with wire worm. You can also include specific plants in your garden to attract beneficial insects. More on this below!

Companion Planting for Pest Control

Include plants that encourage helpful critters like lady bugs. Beneficial insects can be predatory – like green lacewings, ladybugs and hover flies, parasitoid – like certain kinds of wasps, or pollinating – like bees! And don’t forget spiders! Arachnids are especially helpful to have around in the summer time to keep your garden party mosquito-free!

There are many plants that can help attract these critters to your garden community. Nasturtiums, for example, are easy to grow, and produce brightly coloured edible flowers that attract pollinators. If you are having an issue with aphids, beetles or weevils in your veggie garden, consider planting nasturtiums as a companion plant – they attract those pest insects, distracting them and saving your precious kale and broccoli! Other plants that attract beneficial insects include: clover, chamomile, and sunflowers. Read more about supporting and attracting beneficial insects in your garden in this publication from Oregon State University, and check out West Coast Seeds’ Guide to Companion Planting.

Allelopathy is the phenomenon where naturally occurring chemicals in one plant prevent the growth of other particular plants nearby, and/or deter certain insects from coming near it. By planting potent herbs like catmint, chives or dill nearby your garden plots, you can deter many insect pests from coming anywhere near your crops! Borage specifically repels cabbageworm and tomato hornworm, so plant these brilliant purple flowers near your tomatoes and brassicas (cabbage, kale, broccoli, etc.) to add a natural layer of protection from these pests – not to mention, the bees will love it!

Opt for Natural Pesticides

Pesticides can be incredibly harmful. They can harm beneficial insects or wash off your property and impact insect life in streams which is a critical food source for salmon and other aquatic species. You can try these alternative solutions for managing common garden pests:

Be sure to apply this concoction in the evening, rather than during the day so your soap spray does not evaporate in the sun. Applying the spray in the evening also helps to avoid impacting beneficial insects like pollinators, since they will be less active in the evening. Soap sprays effectively suffocate insect pests, working by coating their bodies, blocking the pores through which they breathe.

Visit this article by for more ideas of natural concoctions you can make at home to help deter unwanted insects in your garden. Plus, steer clear of chemical pesticides! Check out our Pesticides to Avoid Tool Kit article to learn more about which chemical pesticides should be avoided at all costs due to their impacts on salmon and other aquatic life.

Keeping out Larger Pests

Sometimes the pests are bigger and require other strategies for protection.

You can make your garden deer proof by surrounding individual shrubs and young trees with deer fencing, or install an angled (45 degrees) fence at least 6 feet high around your entire garden to keep deer out. A simple, inexpensive option is to string up deer netting around your yard, making sure to add flagging on the netting to prevent deer from walking into the nets and becoming entangled. Check out this article from the BC SPCA to learn more about fencing options to keep deer out of your garden. You can also choose garden plants with strong scents or fuzzy or prickly foliage that are naturally not as tasty to deer!

Fencing can also be effective for rabbits and rodents if the mesh is small enough. Another option is a deterrent spray to keep them off of the tender shoots in your garden.  You can use cayenne pepper spray on the plants rabbit seem to enjoy most to help keep them away. Thankfully, this method also works at preventing deer from munching on your plants as well.

Deterrent cayenne Pepper Spray: Mix 2 tsps of cayenne powder or other hot pepper and combine that with 6-8oz of water. You can also add garlic powder in there for added benefit. Spray this around your garden on the plants you want to keep rabbits away from.

Check out this article from Seeds and Grains for more clever tricks to deter rabbits, including setting up motion activated sprinklers to spook them out of your garden.

Optimize Soil Health, the Natural Way

Use Crop Rotation to Manage Pests and Balance Soil Nutrients

Crop rotation, or the practice of changing the plant family growing in your garden plot each season, is a natural method to reduce issues with pests and balance the nutrient budget of your soil. Many veggie garden plants come from a few ‘families’ (e.g. closely related) and share common characteristics like rooting depth, soil pH preference, nutrient requirements, and specific pest and disease susceptibility. When a given family is planted in the same plot year after year, it depletes the soil of the nutrients it needs, leading to an imbalance in soil nutrients that would need to be remedied by the application of fertilizers. Switching up plant families allows the soil to recover and stay balanced in its nutrient composition. Some of the most common plant families in gardening and agriculture can be found in the pictures below.

Common veggie garden families:

One common plant family is the Brassicas – or 'the cabbage family', which includes kale, broccoli, kohlrabi, cauliflower and cabbage. This family is a heavy feeder (requires lots of nutrients) and susceptible to cabbage root maggot, so after planting a bed of Brassicas one year, rotate to Legumes, which are not susceptible to the pest and have a symbiotic bacteria that fixes nitrogen around the roots to replenish the soil, then plant Alliums (onions and garlic) and Solunums (peppers, tomatoes) in that plot, then Umbellifers (carrots, parsley) and squash the next year. This is just one example of a four year crop rotation, but there are many other families to play around with to suit the size of your garden and tastes. The important factor is to make sure the same family of plants does not occupy the same space more than once every three or four years. Learn more about how to plan your garden with crop rotation in the Old Farmer’s Almanac Guide to Crop Rotation. To learn more about the different plant families and organic gardening, check out this book: Backyard Bounty: The Complete Guide to Year-Round Organic Gardening in the Pacific Northwest by Linda Gilkeson.

Protect Your Soil All Seasons

Looking after your soil will help you reduce the need for fertilizers and help your plants reach their full potential.

Use Cover Crops in the Off-Season

Don’t forget to plant a cover crop to protect your soil over the winter time! Cover crops are plants that are grown in the off seasons of agricultural crops, and are often hardy plants throughout the winter.

Try out red clover or fall rhye in your garden! Many cover crops like fava beans (a legume) and hairy vetch have the added benefit of fixing nitrogen into the soil, so come spring, you can turn that cover crop into the soil and plant your seeds directly in the nourished soil. Not only do cover crops prevent weeds from taking over your garden box in the absence of crops over winter, they are a key element in maintaining soil health over time. Cover crops can also attract pollinators and provide excellent habitat for beneficial insects like ground beetles.


Another option to protect your soil over winter is to cover it with mulch. Mulch adds good organic material without much hassle. You can even use your plants as mulch! Once they are done for the season, pull them out of the soil and leave them on top – this provides nice cover to the soil, but only do so if the plants are not diseased! If there are deciduous trees on your property, consider making use of the leaves that fall from those trees in autumn by either leaving them on top of the grass, or using them as mulch in your garden beds to cover the soil over winter.

The benefits of mulching your garden beds with leaves:

  • protects the soil from the heavy rains throughout the winter
  • provides insect habitat and food source 
  • helps suppress weedy species
  • improves soil fertility by decomposing on site 
  • prevents compaction
  • helps regulate soil temperature (and warmer soil leads to increased microbial activity)
Fertilizers to Use
Avoid runoff of fertilizers

While agricultural crops often benefit from soil nourishment, chemical fertilizers are not ideal, as they are often applied in excess, and can easily leach out of the soil and into nearby waterways. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients enter a waterbody – often through runoff of fertilizers – fueling an overgrowth of algae. That algal growth takes over the habitat, then when it completes its life cycle, the dead algae decomposes within that water body – a process which uses up oxygen in the water, making the environment inhospitable for fish and other aquatic life. Don’t contribute to eutrophication in your community, be smart about fertilizer application!

Bonus Fun Tip!

Saving Seeds

Did you have an excellent crop of tomatoes this year? Consider saving the seeds to grow the same variety next year. Seed saving is an age old process. It helps us be more self sufficient and develop seed sovereignty where we are less reliant on commercial seeds. Not to mentioned, saving seeds from your garden can help with maintenance of diversity.

When choosing your plants, consider buying heirloom and open-pollinated varieties. Buy your starts or seeds from local farmers and nurseries that carry varieties that are open-pollinated and adapted to your local environment. Some of the larger commercial seed producers only offer patented seeds where you must repurchase them each year. Many communities have Seedy Saturday events where you can purchase local, open-pollinated varieties. Find an event in your area, and stop by to start your seed saving practice today!

Not sure where to start? Many organizations like the Organic Seed Alliance have made seed saving guides like this one freely available and ready for download.

Photo Credits: Priscilla Du Preez on Unsplash; Eiko Jones; Erik Kartis on Pexels; Maylee on Unsplash; Flash Dantz on Unsplash; Trung Thanh on Unsplash; Sam Forson on Pexels; Greta Hoffman on Pexels; Arnaldo Aldana on Unsplash; Mick Haupt on Unsplash; Marina Yalanska on Unsplash; Steffi Pereira on Unsplash; Jeffrey Hamilton on Unsplash., Eco Warrior Princess on Unsplash.

Using Green Shores Nature-based Solutions

As a homeowner, you have an opportunity to enroll your site in Green Shores® for Homes and work with qualified professionals (biologists, coastal engineers, and environmental specialists) to develop and apply a nature-based shoreline design on your property.

Green Shores® is a program of the non-profit Stewardship Centre for British Columbia (SCBC) that offers a framework of best practices, training, and technical support to property owners interested in applying nature-based solutions on their property.

How does using Green Shores benefit salmon?

Green Shores guides users to nature-based solutions that encourage healthy land-sea habitat connectivity, which provides quality shoreline habitat for salmon.

Applying nature-based solutions along shoreline properties comes with a number of environmental, social and economic benefits. For example, nature-based solutions, such as beach nourishment and native plantings, improves resiliency to sea level rise and climate change by allowing for dynamically coastal processes adjust to changing levels whilst also providing habitat complexity for the ecosystem. Implementing upland solutions, such as rain gardens or rainwater harvesting, can reduce runoff and contaminated water flowing to the shore, thereby minimizing erosion and harmful toxins entering the environment. Truly a 'win-win', nature-based solutions are also typically lower cost than static engineered shoreline property protection measures such as seawalls and they create a naturally beautiful shoreline for everyone to enjoy.

Learn more about Green Shores and continue reading below to learn how to enroll, and about the benefits and assistance you can receive.

A Green Shores for Homes - certified project site in Parksville, Vancouver Island. The shoreline project included a hybrid design and extensive planting of native vegetation with retention of large woody debris, providing resiliency to erosion, and enhanced aesthetics and access to the shoreline. Photo credit: Kelly Loch

Getting started with Green Shores for Homes

As one Green Shores for Homes homeowner said:

'Becoming involved, reading and learning about the benefits of Green Shores through this project has been enlightening….and fun.  Thank you to the Green Shores team for sharing your knowledge and passion for the program. We look forward to enjoying the garden maturing and evolving with the hope of it being an inspiration for neighbouring waterfront owners. Best of all the birds love it!’Green Shores for Homes Gold Project Homeowner, Nanaimo, Vancouver Island.

Follow the steps below to get started:
  1. Visit the Green Shores website, review the resources available, and explore existing Green Shores Case Studies on completed projects to learn more about how the Green Shores process was applied and see the results. If you have any questions, contact the Stewardship Centre for BC at

Currently, there is no cost to the homeowner for Green Shores for Homes as grant funding covers the cost of project enrollment, support and verification.  Larger scale projects, for example a park or commercial site, follow a similar process to the above but use the Green Shores for Shoreline Development guide. There are fees associated with enrollment and verification of Green Shores for Shoreline Development projects. Contact the Stewardship Centre for more information.

Why get Green Shores certified?

By enrolling in Green Shores for Homes, homeowners benefit from project assistance, training and verification at no cost. As well, Green Shores projects located on Vancouver Island can potentially use the Expedited Permit Checklist for nature-based projects to expedite provincial permitting in the foreshore. This process provides the homeowner with time and cost savings. By using Green Shores guidance, homeowners are able to design a successful custom nature-based approach that works for the site and their needs.

In addition, once the Green Shores project is certified, the property value might be enhanced, and maintenance costs reduced, making it a valuable investment for homeowners. Green Shores certified sites are also a source of pride to the homeowner, and a great inspiration to neighbouring shoreline owners.  In this way, shoreline owners work together to support the environment and promote nature-based solutions in their communities.

“We are proud recipients of Green Shores certification for keeping the shoreline natural at our new home in Bowser, BC! “ – 2019 Green Shores for Homes homeowner, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Photo by the Stewardship Centre for BC.

Additional resources

Green Shores Website

Green Shores Downloadable Guides and Resources

Green Shores Approved Professionals

Green Shores Training

Green Shores Webinars

Saving Electricity

Earth’s resources are important to manage and conserve, and electricity is a resource that should be used wisely.

In British Columbia more than 90% of BC Hydro’s power is generated from hydroelectricity. While it is a clean source of energy with low carbon footprint, hydroelectricity projects affect our watersheds and disrupt river systems that are important salmon habitats.

How does saving electricity benefit salmon?

Saving electricity reduces pressure on the grid and this collectively can minimize the need for hydro projects which may obstruct salmon passageways on rivers.

The following sections contain energy saving tips that will save you money on your BC Hydro bill and reduce your impact on the environment. You may also want to learn more about green sources of energy for your home, such as solar panels, or switching to renewable natural gas to further reduce your impact.

Learn how much you use

Understanding your personal energy consumption is a great place to start on the path to reducing electricity use. If you are a BC Hydro customer, you can track your electricity consumption down to the hour, by the day or on a monthly or yearly basis. Simply create an account with BC Hydro with the following tool: Track and manage your electricity use online.

Products like the Rainforest EMU-2™ Energy Monitoring Unit could help you track your household’s energy usage, as well as the estimated cost of the energy you are currently using (learn more from BC Hydro by clicking here).

Once you are tracking yourself, you can check your usage against the average BC energy consumption or similar houses in your neighbourhood. You can even compare yourself against your past self and see how implementing some of the tips below are making a difference!

Things you can do

Switch off and unplug:
  • Upgrade your windows to energy efficient ones. Windows, being less well insulated than walls, are responsible for significant heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter. Modern double-glazed windows can reduce heat loss by 30% over single pane glass. The window type and frame can also impact how energy efficient it is.
Simple energy saving tips:

In winter

Click here to find more tips from BC Hydro to keep your home warm in winter.

In summer

  • Close window coverings and blinds during a hot day to reduce the amount of heat coming through the window.
  • Promote natural ventilation to moderate the temperature of your home, open windows on opposite sides of the house to encourage the flow through of cool air in the evenings and mornings.
  • Line dry your laundry whenever possible. Did you know that on average 12% of home electricity consumption is from the clothes dryer? Hanging laundry on a line or rack outside to dry not only saved you electricity, it will extend the life of your clothes and reduce microplastic pollution.
  • Avoid the oven, which will heat up your kitchen and use the BBQ or have a salad for dinner.
  • Use a fan to keep cool rather than air conditioning when possible.

Click here to find more tips from BC Hydro for keeping cool in summer.

All year-round

Click here to find even more tips from BC Hydro on ways to save electricity.


Taking the steps outlined above will help save you money on your electricity bill, and you may be able to save even more money through rebates and incentives. Take advantage of government and BC Hydro rebates programs to take on bigger projects with greater up-front costs, such as improving your home’s insulation or upgrading a major appliance.

If you can reduce your electricity use by 10% over 12 months, BC Hydro will pay you $50. Join BC Hydro’s Team Power Smart Energy Challenge through Team Power Smart.  Simply start by logging in to your online account.

We can all make choices that help to save electricity.  Let’s all work towards this for today's and future generations.

Photo credits: Anete Lusina from Pexels, Ksenia Chernaya from Pexels, Nicole Christiansen, Maria Catanzaro, Ben Wicks on Unsplash

Nature-based Solutions for the Shoreline

Rather than coastal armouring structures such as seawalls and riprap, which degrade over time, disrupt natural shoreline processes, deflect wave energy, and are vulnerable to sea level rise, nature-based solutions can be used to protect our shorelines and the communities along them.

Coastlines are naturally dynamic systems and this can be a good thing for adapting to climate change if we understand and respect the natural processes at play. By working with nature, we can increase our resiliency to the impacts of climate change while also supporting and protecting biodiversity and human well-being.

Compared to traditional hard-armouring (left), nature-based solutions (right) can offer better protection from storm surge and sea level rise while maintaining high value habitat. Illustration by Holly Sullivan.
How does applying nature-based solutions benefit salmon?

Opting for more natural solutions for shoreline protection rather than seawalls, creates a more resilient habitat that can support juvenile salmon as well as forage fish and invertebrates that salmon feed upon.

Here, we share a number of considerations and nature-based strategies for protecting our shorelines and communities.

Protecting the Upland

Protecting healthy and functioning coastal ecosystems starts with attention to the areas above the high tide mark, or the ‘upland’. By managing what happens on the upland, shorelines can be protected from excessive run‑off, contaminants, and erosion that would otherwise contribute to shoreline degradation. Here are a few suggestions:

Retain trees and snags – Avoid clearing of trees and shrubs along the shoreline as these provide important functions, for example as a food source, for shading, and riparian zone stabilization.

Practice eco-friendly gardening – Remove invasive species and encourage native species, and avoid chemical pesticides and fertilizers.

Reduce and treat run‑off – Use strategies such as rain gardens, permeable pavers and rainwater capture systems to minimize run-off from your property which can help reduce surface erosion and prevent contaminants from flowing into the aquatic environment.

Protect the riparian zone – A healthy riparian zone is key to the health of the shoreline as it acts as a buffer between the upland and the foreshore. The first step it to protect what is there:  but if the backshore vegetation has been cleared in the past, try to replant it with native species. Below is a table of suitable species for our local coastal riparian zones you can source from a native plant nursery.

TreesShrubsGrass & Wild Flowers
ArbutusNootka rosebeach wild-rye grass
Douglas-firoceansprayred fescue
Sitka sprucered flowering currantentire-leaved gumweed
shore pinesnowberrylarge-leaved lupine
red aldermock-orangeseashore lupine
big-leaf maplesweet galebeach pea
Pacific willowsalalsilvery burweed
cascaraOregon-grapebeach strawberry
Hooker's willowthimbleberrysea-watch
Douglas maplesalmonberrycow-parsnip
Scouler's willowIndian-plumCooley's hedge-nettle
Pacific crab appleblack twinberrycommon yarrow
vine maplekinnickinnickwooly sunflower
western red cedarPacific ninebark
Table adapted from tables included in Your Marine Waterfront (pg 37-39) and Green Shores Credits and Ratings Guide for Homes (pg 130).

Plan for sea level rise

Sea levels are rising – how a given area will be impacted will depend on the region and a number of other factors such as erosion and deposition rates, and geological factors like uplift and plate tectonics. In British Columbia, sea level rise is projected to be greatest on the north coast, the Fraser Lowland and southern Vancouver Island. See this map which shows vulnerability to sea level rise and coastal flooding.

Sea level rise will increase tide levels and how far seawater reaches onto land, influence the duration and frequency of inundation, exacerbate coastal erosion, and even cause the loss of nearshore habitat. Coastal modifications can exacerbate these impacts. To adapt we will need to:

Avoid further development directly on shorelines – Protect and preserve the natural areas we still have. Preserving shorelines in their natural state helps ensure important habitats are available to support biodiverse ecosystems and our coastal food web.

Accommodate for sea level rise – Increase setbacks, move infrastructure back if possible, and build any new structures further back from the shore. There is often a required regulatory setback that is established by local government regulations and this may vary by area. A safe setback distance that accounts for local sea level rise should be calculated based on site conditions by a qualified professional, whom would also ensure regulatory conditions are met.

Remove existing seawalls, riprap or other modifications to the shoreline – These structures, which are built with the intention to protect coastal infrastructure, actually disrupt coastal processes and are not an effective long-term solution for adapting to sea level rise. A shoreline is most resilient when it can function as an intact ecosystem.  

Undertake Restoration and Implement Nature-based Solutions

Successful restoration that improves ecosystem function and protects shoreline infrastructure requires a complete understanding of the dynamics of the area of shoreline you are working on. Enlisting qualified professionals (coastal geomorphologists/engineers, landscape architects, environmental consultants and biologists) is a critical step and will help you confidently design and plan a solution that considers natural coastal processes, shoreline erosion risk, and the dynamics of the ecosystem as a whole. The Stewardship Centre for BC has compiled a list of Green Shores Approved Professionals  that have the skills and experience for such projects.

Depending on the site being restored some nature-based solutions that may be recommended include:

Recontour the beach profile Recontouring can create great habitat benefits and provide shoreline protection. The aim of recontouring is to alter the slope of a beach so that it has a gentle gradient that will naturally dissipate wave energy. The process involves large machinery removing sediment from some areas and adding it to others to create the desired effect. Depending on the dynamics of a site, it may require maintenance over time to preserve the slope profile.

Beach nourishment – Sediment that is lost through erosion and not replenished by natural coastal processes can be replaced through a process called beach nourishment. Coastal modifications, such as groynes, jetties and breakwaters, disrupt longshore drift, which is responsible for maintaining the sand on beaches. Without natural replenishment, beaches that were once sandy or gravelly, may be stripped to cobble stones or bedrock. Having the right types of sediments on beaches is vital for forage fish, which spawn along the high tide line. To ensure the best habitat outcome, consult with a shoreline professional with expertise in coastal processes and forage fish requirements. They may suggest a ‘forage fish’ sediment mix that is specially formulated to suit the needs of species like Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring and surf smelt.

Incorporate large woody debris – Drift wood logs and other large woody debris can be placed along upper beaches and backshore, typically beyond the reach of the waves, to stabilize the shoreline and provide micro‑habitat for vegetation and animals. Depending on where they are placed, the natural untreated logs that are brought in may need to be anchored, either by partial burial or placing between rocks, to ensure they will not float away on the next high tide. Ideally, the logs will include intact roots or branches and be Douglas fir or western red cedar as they are naturally rot resistant. Once in place, the logs can help reduce erosion and accrete additional sediment on which dune grass and other shoreline plants may establish, further stabilizing and building up the beach.

Stabilize the shoreline with vegetation – Planting the riparian zone will stabilize sediment and prevent erosion along the shoreline. Having intact vegetation along the shoreline will also increase biodiversity, support marine food web linkages, and create incredible wildlife viewing opportunities. Besides planting native plant seedlings, there is another common method of revegetation, known as live staking, which involves sustainably harvesting cuttings from specific native species near by (e.g. red alder, snowberry, and Scouler willow) and staking them into the sediment and for them to eventually re-grow and stabilize the bank.

Here is a photo from a marine riparian restoration on Thetis Island by SeaChange Marine Conservation Society, led by Dave Polster. Also see this video of a shoreline slope restoration near Victoria.

Case Study: Weaverling Spit Restoration Projects

A great example where all of these methods were utilized is the Weaverling Spit Restoration Projects by Samish Nation and Coastal Geologic Services, in Samish Territory, Anacortes, Washington. The project involved multiple phases of restoration along the shoreline including a long-term plan for managed retreat on Tribal Lands to allow for landward habitat migration. Below you will see how the shoreline was re-graded and restored and the benefits that have been achieved.

Prior to the restoration (left) Fidalgo Bay Resort was vulnerable to storm surges and experienced flooding and infrastructure damage. After regrading the shoreline and supplementing sediment (right), the site is more protected.

Weaverling Spit was experiencing erosion and, with lawn extending to the shoreline, there was no habitat connectivity (left) prior to recontouring the beach and planting riparian vegetation (right). The site is now more resilient to storm events and provides valuable habitat again. Large woody debris has naturally recruited and brought with it additional habitat and shoreline stabilization benefits described above. The beach was nourished with a forage fish sediment mix and, incredibly, they found surf smelt spawning the very next day!

Considering a project involving some or all of the above strategies?

Check out these helpful resources for additional information:

Put together for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and adapted by the Stewardship Centre for British Columbia, Your Marine Waterfront Canadian Edition provides ways to promote healthy shorelines while protecting waterfront properties. Included are guidelines for site assessments and design techniques to plan and restore your shoreline and other helpful resources for shoreline property owners.

The Washington State Aquatic Habitat Guidelines Program has created Marine Shoreline Design Guidelines as comprehensive guide of shoreline assessment and management techniques. This guide provides detailed methods for site assessments, implementation of the nature-based solutions outlined above, and considerations and techniques for removal of coastal armouring.

You can take your project a step further and enroll your project with Green Shores  and go through Green Shores® accreditation process. Find out more from the SCBC website (Green Shores for Homes and Green Shores for Shoreline Development) and this Green Shores for Homes Credits and Ratings Guide.

Photo credits: Jake Dingwall, Kelly Loch, Maria Catanzaro, Weaverling Spit Restoration 'before' photos courtesy of Todd Woodard, Samish Nation Natural Resources, after photos by Maria Catanzaro

Greening Your Wardrobe

The key to having an environmentally friendly wardrobe is to buy new products less often – and to refrain from participating in the wasteful fast-fashion industry.

Many of us feel the urge to revamp our wardrobe from time to time, but buying new clothes and getting rid of unwanted items doesn’t have to be wasteful! Most clothing brands negatively impact the environment – from harmful dyes to overuse of water to microplastic pollution. Did you know that the fashion industry is responsible for 10% of global carbon emissions? This number could increase if the industry carries on its excessive trend in production. Not to mention that many clothing producers are not socially responsible – continuing to operate their factories under unsafe conditions, and underpaying workers in developing countries to cut production costs.

How does greening your wardrobe benefit salmon?

The fashion industry has a huge carbon, natural resource, and pollution footprint. Choosing sustainable brands and making the conscious choice to consume less can reduce climate change and pollution related pressures on salmon.

Cheaper, fast fashion clothing can use harmful dyes and lesser quality materials that break down in the wash cycle, leaching into and polluting local waterways.

The fast-fashion industry, where clothing items are made cheaply to keep up with trends and be affordable for the average consumer, is a huge problem, and is relatively new. There has been a radical increase in the production of clothing since 2000 – in fact, production has nearly doubled!

Although there are many avenues to donate, reuse or recycle clothing items, approximately 85% of all garments produced end up in the landfill. Fortunately, there are many ways that you can help reduce these shocking figures! Learn more about the impacts of the fashion industry in this Business Insider article.

Check out these tips for making your spring, summer, fall or even winter cleaning more eco-conscious, and maybe even profitable!

Contribute to the circular economy

Do some good

Donate your used clothing, bedding, kitchen ware, and sports equipment to a thrift store. Most thrift stores raise money for local hospitals, shelters, and other positive causes, so your donations to or purchases from thrift stores will help out a worthy cause.

You can also donate the clothes directly to a shelter or a donation drop off bin around your community.

Not to mention, shopping at thrift stores provides fun opportunities to find unique, affordable items.

Make some extra cash

Have high quality clothing items that you just don’t reach for? Consider consignment!

Consignment stores like Turn About simplify selling quality garments. Through these shops, you can sell your used clothing without the extra steps of taking photos of the garments and managing requests and questions about the items. This is a great option if you have high value items that you need help selling. Through consignment, you can make some extra cash by receiving a portion of the sales of your items, or by having the buyer offer you a price for your items on the spot. Often, these stores are particular about which brands, materials or styles they accept – but make an appointment or stop by and speak with their buyers to find out how each store works.

Use apps/websites to help circulate quality used items within your community! Varage Sale (aptly named because it is like holding a garage sale, virtually) and Facebook Marketplace are great tools to help you sell any items that you no longer need - from furniture to shoes to handmade items! Simply upload photos and add the details of your item(s), set the price, and watch the messages come flooding in!

Online platforms are especially helpful for families. Kids grow out of clothing and shoes so quickly, so opting for second-hand items is a great move to reduce your environmental impact, as well as the impact on your wallet.

Shop thoughtfully

Invest for the long haul

If you need to purchase a new item, make it a thoughtful purchase. Do some research, and maybe save up to invest in key pieces that are well made and will last a long time.

Many tried and true staple brands such as Levi’s are committed to making quality items that last, and on improving their standards of production. In 2021, Levi’s launch their campaign “Buy Better, Wear Longer,” emphasizing their brand messaging that Levi’s denim products are meant to be worn throughout a person’s life, not just for a season.

Support brands doing the right thing

Levi's has also committed to using new innovations to reduce their water consumption during the processesing of their products. Read more about the brand’s commitments to being eco-conscious in this Branding Forum article.

Want to find out about the eco-consciousness of other brands that you love? Try out the Good on You app or website to explore the ethical and environmental ratings of thousands of clothing producers. Plus, get tips on building your wardrobe with staples from the most highly rated brands with the lowest environmental impacts, and read about current issues like how fashion trends are leading consumers to support fast fashion. 

Don’t forget to buy products made from natural materials like cotton, linen, and leather since they are durable and do not contribute to microplastic pollution in your laundry.

Make the most out of what you already have

Another simple way to reduce your contribution to textiles waste is by making your clothing last longer. Do some garments like socks have a hole in them? You can easily stitch it up to get some more life out of that pair.

Larger holes in jeans can be patched up using fun coloured or patterned fabrics. You can stitch by hand, or use one or two simple stitches on a sewing machine. Get creative with your mending – get inspired, and learn some tips and tricks for every kind of hole or tear!

Fast-fashion garments that are typically made with synthetic materials also tend to break down faster, and the cheap production means these pieces tend to fall apart after a few washes – which means more stitching for you! The lives of these garments are short, and their low value means you will be less likely to resell these items. When you invest in well made garments made from natural materials, they are much more likely to last.

Find more tips on Metro Vancouver's Think Thrice page, including how to repair or recycle your tired clothes and advice on investing in quality pieces.

Photo credits: Ksenia Chrnaya from Pexels, Eiko Jones, Tom Fisk from Pexels, Antoni Shkraba from Pexels, Filipe Vieira on Unsplash, and Reuben Kim on Unsplash.